The most important elements of the draft agreement are:[21] This was triggered by Article 50 of the Treaty on european Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of an EU Member State, thus opening a two-year countdown to withdrawal. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. Those who are protected by the withdrawal agreement and who have not yet acquired a right of permanent residence – if they have not lived in the host state for at least five years – are fully protected by the withdrawal agreement and can continue to reside in the host state and acquire permanent residence rights in the host state even after the UK`s withdrawal from the EU. The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed, by 329 votes to 299, to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable it had proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the law would be overturned. [38] [12] On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement was presented and the support of the British government cabinet, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.

[28] During the transitional period, the United Kingdom is no longer a member state, but remains in the EU customs union and the internal market and remains bound by obligations under all EU international agreements. The agreement also provides for a transitional period, which will last until 31 December 2020 and can be extended by mutual agreement. During the transitional period, EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK (including participation in the European Economic Area, the internal market and the customs union) and the UK will continue to contribute to the EU budget, but the UK will not be represented in EU decision-making bodies. The transition period will give businesses time to adapt to the new situation and the new era, so that the British and European governments can negotiate a new trade agreement between the EU and the UK. [17] If compliance is still not restored after these steps, the parties are allowed to appropriately suspend the application of the withdrawal agreement itself, with the exception of the rights of citizens or parties to other agreements between the Union and the United Kingdom. On 23 March 2018, EU and UK negotiators reached an agreement on the draft withdrawal agreement allowing the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines for the framework for future eu-UK relations.